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All card art done by James Bolinger.

Icon Art and card elements by Cole Munro-Chitty

Items

Weapon: Atlatl

 

Most regions throughout the world have used an Atlatl of some variety throughout history. Called an Estolica by the Spanish, Propulseur by the French, Speerschleuder by the German, Woomera or Miru by the Australians, but the Aztecs, who were using these weapons as late as the 1500s when encountered by the Spanish.

Considered to be one of humankind’s first mechanical inventions, this weapon is essentially a stick with a handle on one end, and a hook or socket that engages a light spear or “Dart” on the other. The flipping motion of the Atlatl propels a light spear much faster and farther than it could be thrown by hand alone. 

Information on the Atlatl brought to you by Waa.basketmakeratlatl.com

 

Weapon: Bow & Arrows

The bow and arrow has been found throughout history. There is proof of them from more than 60,000 years ago originating in Africa. 

 

In its basest description A bow and arrow is a kind of lever, where your hand on the bow acts as the fulcrum for the lever. The arrows are wooden sticks fletched with feathers stuck to the ends to balance the arrows and help them to fly in a straight line.

 

Earlier bows were made of wood, then wood, animal bones and sinew and were used commonly for hunting and war until the 17th century in Europe, and a little later in other parts of the world. Modern bows are made of aluminum, carbon fiber and other composite materials with high tensile strength and use pulleys to allow for greater power than one can generate without them.

 

Information on the Bow and Arrow brought to you by https://quatr.us/africa/invented-bow-arrow.htm and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compound_bow

 

Artifact: Caltrops

 

A caltrop is a device—usually made out of metal—with four spikes arranged in such a way that when any three spikes rest on the ground, the fourth points upward. They come in all shapes and sizes—from Christmas tree caltrops with jagged edges to caltrops comprised of hollow spikes.

 

Caltrops were used as early as 331 B.C. at the Battle of Arbela—or Gaugamela—in what was once Persia. Since then they have been used from the Roman Empire to the cold war, standing the test of time and proving themselves to be easy to use, useful tools.

 

Information on Caltrops brought to you by https://www.cia.gov/news-information/featured-story-archive/cia-museum-the-caltrop.html

 

Armor: Chainmail

Until the 1700's Chainmail was simply called mail, referring to the material itself, not actually the clothing made of it.

 

It is commonly believed that Chainmail was invented by the Celts in the 4th or 5th  century BC but the earliest confirmed record of chainmail was made by the persians in 359BC. It was used by the Romans throughout their history and is well known as the staple for soldiers of the middle ages throughout Europe and Asia.

 

Information on Chainmail Armor brought to you by https://www.ukessays.com/essays/history/the-history-of-chain-mail-history-essay.php

 

Armor: Full Plate Mail

From Chainmail, plates started being added. In the 13th century plate mail was made of iron and by the 15th century plate mail was actually cheaper than chain, due to the amount of time needed to make a suit of it. 

 

Probably the most recognised style of armour in the world became the plate armour associated with the knights of the European Late Middle Ages, but continuing to the early 17th century Age of Enlightenment in all European countries. By the end of the 18th century, plate was phased out for infantry but still used for calvary into the early 20th century.

Information on Plate Mail brought to you by http://www.medievalwarfare.info/armour.htm

 

Artifact: Holy Doctrine

Many believe the Bible to be the oldest holy text, but many have been used throughout time. The Egyptian Book of the Dead Dates back to roughly the 10th Century BC. This was a book of both religious and magical spells, mostly pertaining to the dead and the afterlife. The Mesopotamians had the Epic of Gilgamesh dating from the 21st century BC, which is believed to have influenced the stories of the great flood and the serpent in the garden of Eden from the bible. And the Zoroastrian Texts depict one of the world’s oldest monotheistic religions practiced in Iran around 600BC-650CE.

 

Information on Holy Doctrines brought to you by http://www.ancientfacts.net/5-holy-books-predate-bible

 

Artifact: Horses

Horses have been around for more than 50 million years, but were first domesticated by humans roughly 6000 years ago in the region between the Black Sea and Kazakhstan. Almost immediately they were used for war, and within a century people started attaching wagons. By 1600 BC war chariots were being used throughout the near east.

 

Information on Horses brought to you by https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horses_in_warfare

 

Armor: Leather Armor

Leather armor was popular in the middle ages, and usually used for the lower classes or and poorer nobility. It had advantages like being able to be repaired by the soldier, but was rarely used as the whole armor, often being supplimented with metal. In the late middle ages, as Ring and Plate mail became cheaper to produce. Leather remained a useful base for many other armors as time went on.

Information on Leather Armor brought to you by http://www.historyforkids.net/leather-armor.html

 

Weapon: Long Sword

The "Long Sword" was known as a number of different swords over time; the “hand and a half sword”, the “bastard sword” and the “war sword”. These longer, two handed swords became common use as armor got better and shields become less relevant, thus freeing up the shield hand for the use of heavier long swords.

 

Information on Long Swords brought to you by http://www.encasedinsteel.co.uk/2013/06/21/development-of-the-longsword-through-the-ages/

 

Artifact: Peace Treaty 

The first recorded peace treaty known to modern historians is that between the Egyptions and the Hittite Empire in 1258 BCE which read inpart, "Ramesses, the great king, the king of the country of Egypt, shall never attack the country of Hatti to take possession of a part (of this country). And Hattusili, the great king, the king of the country of Hatti, shall never attack the country of Egypt to take possession of a part (of that country)." This treaty turned the squandering of resources on war into a great trading of skills and knowledge that helped the prosperity of both Nations.

 

Information on Peace treaty brought to you by https://www.ancient.eu/article/78/the-battle-of-kadesh--the-first-peace-treaty/

 

Armor: Tower Shield

The Greeks used a few different "body shields" during the Bronze age of which one was called the Tower Shield. Believed to have been made of animal hides attached to a Wicker structure, with Bronze, Tin or Wood reinforcements. This shield was an excelent defense againse arrows and crossbow bolts, rendering them almost useless especially when tower shields were used both in front of and on top of soldiers in a method called turtling. While great for protection against these distance weapons, they provided very little protection in close range combat, as they were heavy and slow.

 

Information on Tower Shield brought to you by http://www.santharia.com/armour/tower_shield.htm and http://www.salimbeti.com/micenei/shields1.htm

 

Weapon: War Hammer

War Hammers come in a number of varieties and lengths. From short handles to the length of Pikes. Some looking like modern sledge hammers and some looking more like a much bigger modern roofing hammer. These were effective weapons against armored opponents, because a well targeted shot could crush armor, take out the legs of horses or in the case of the spiked hammer, drive through even the toughest of armors.

 

Information on War Hammer brought to you by http://www.medievalmiddleages.com/weapons/war-hammer.html

 

Artifact: Writ of Redistricting

From the earliest recorded Land Reforms of the Greeks and Romans in the 6th and 2nd centuries respectively to modern day Gerrymandering in America, governments have been realocating land, changing its borders and even its voting lines. After the revolution the brought the Greek Peisistratus to power, he distributed the lands of his adversaries amongst those who supported him. The lex agraria, of the Roman Tiberius was passed by popular support against serious resistance by the nobility. It applied only to former public land, ager publicus, which had been usurped and concentrated in the hands of large landholders.

 

In the United States, since its inception, Gerrymandering has been used to redraw the congressional boundries in order to help one political party over another.

Informaiton on Land Reform and Redistricting brought to you by https://www.britannica.com/topic/land-reform/History-of-land-reform and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerrymandering_in_the_United_States

 

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